Transaction Memos


Transactions to THORChain pass user intent with the MEMO field on their respective chains. THORChain inspects the transaction object and the MEMO in order to process the transaction, so care must be taken to ensure the MEMO and the transaction are both valid. If not, THORChain will automatically refund the assets. Memos are set in inbound transactions unless specified.

THORChain uses specific asset notation for all assets. Assets and functions can be abbreviated, and affiliate addresses and asset amounts can be shortened to reduce memo length, including through use of scientific notation. Some parameters can also refer to a THORName instead of an address.

Guides have been created for Swap, Savers and Lending to enable quoting and the automatic construction of memos for simplicity.

All memos are listed in the relevant THORChain source code variable stringToTxTypeMap.

Memo Size Limits

THORChain has a memo size limit of 250 bytes. Any inbound tx sent with a larger memo will be ignored. Additionally, memos on UTXO chains are further constrained by the OP_RETURN size limit, which is 80 bytes.

Dust Thresholds

THORChain has various dust thresholds (dust limits), defined on a per-chain basis. Refer to the THORNode inbound addresses endpoint for details, specifically the dust_threshold field.


All memos follow the format: FUNCTION:PARAM1:PARAM2:PARAM3:PARAM4

The function is invoked by a string, which in turn calls a particular handler in the state machine. The state machine parses the memo looking for the parameters which it simply decodes from human-readable strings.

Some parameters are optional. Simply leave them blank but retain the : separator, e.g., FUNCTION:PARAM1:::PARAM4.

Permitted Functions

The following functions can be put into a memo:

  1. SWAP
  2. DEPOSIT Savers
  3. WITHDRAW Savers
  4. OPEN Loan
  5. REPAY Loan
  6. ADD Liquidity
  7. WITHDRAW Liquidity
  8. ADD Trade Account
  9. WITHDRAW Trade Account
  13. NOOP


Perform an asset swap.



For the DEX aggregator-oriented variation of the SWAP memo, see Aggregators Memos.

PayloadSend the asset to swap.Must be an active pool on THORChain.
SWAPThe swap handler.Also s or =
:ASSETThe asset identifier.Can be shortened.
:DESTADDRThe destination address to send to.Can use THORName.
:LIMThe trade limit, i.e., set 100000000 to get a minimum of 1 full asset, else a refund.Optional. 1e8 or scientific notation.
/INTERVALSwap interval in blocks.Optional. If 0, do not stream.
/QUANTITYSwap Quantity. Swap interval times every Interval blocks.Optional. If 0, network will determine the number of swaps.
:AFFILIATEThe affiliate address.Optional. Must be a THORName or THOR Address.
:FEEThe affiliate fee. RUNE is sent to affiliate.Optional. Ranges from 0 to 1000 Basis Points.

Syntactic Examples:

  • SWAP:ASSET:DESTADDR — simple swap
  • SWAP:ASSET:DESTADDR:LIM — swap with trade limit
  • SWAP:ASSET:DESTADDR:LIM/0/1 — swap with limit, do not stream swap
  • SWAP:ASSET:DESTADDR:LIM/3/0 — swap with limit, optimise swap amount, every 3 blocks
  • SWAP:ASSET:DESTADDR:LIM/1/0:AFFILIATE:FEE — swap with limit, optimised and affiliate fee

Real-world Examples:

  • SWAP:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0 — swap to Ether, send output to the specified address
  • SWAP:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:10000000 — same as above except the ETH output should be more than 0.1 ETH else refund
  • SWAP:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:10000000/1/1 — same as above except do not stream the swap
  • SWAP:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:10000000/3/0 — same as above except streaming the swap, every 3 blocks, and THORChain to calculate the number of swaps required to achieve optimal price efficiency
  • SWAP:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:10000000/3/0:t:10 — same as above except sends 10 basis points from the input to affiliate t (THORSwap)
  • s:ETH.ETH:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:1e6/3/0:t:10 — same as above except with a reduced memo and scientific notation trade limit
  • =:r:thor1el4ufmhll3yw7zxzszvfakrk66j7fx0tvcslym:19779138111 — swap to at least 197.79 RUNE
  • =:ETH/USDC-0XA0B86991C6218B36C1D19D4A2E9EB0CE3606EB48:thor15s4apx9ap7lazpsct42nmvf0t6am4r3w0r64f2:628197586176 — swap to at least 6281.9 Synthetic USDC
  • =:BSC.BNB:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0:544e6/2/6 — swap to at least 5.4 BNB, using streaming swaps, 6 swaps, every 2 blocks
  • =:BTC~BTC:thor1g6pnmnyeg48yc3lg796plt0uw50qpp7humfggz:1e6/1/0:dx:10 — - Swap to Bitcoin Trade Asset, using a Limit, Streaming Swaps and a 10 bansis point fee to the affiliate dx (Asgardex)

Deposit Savers

Deposit an asset into THORChain Savers.


PayloadThe asset to add liquidity with.Must be supported by THORChain.
ADDThe deposit handler.Also +
:POOLThe pool to add liquidity to.Gas and stablecoin pools only.
:Must be empty.Optional. Required if adding affiliate and fee.
:AFFILIATEThe affiliate address.Optional. Must be a THORName or THOR Address.
:FEEThe affiliate fee. RUNE is sent to affiliate.Optional. Ranges from 0 to 1000 Basis Points.


  • ADD:ETH/ETH — deposit into the ETH Savings Vault
  • +:BTC/BTC::t:10 — deposit into the BTC Savings Vault, with 10 basis points being sent to affiliate t (THORSwap)
  • a:DOGE/DOGE — deposit into the DOGE Savings Vault


Depositing into Savers can also work without a memo, however memos are recommended to be explicit about the transaction intent.

Withdraw Savers

Withdraw an asset from THORChain Savers.


PayloadSend the dust threshold of the asset to cause the transaction to be picked up by THORChain.Dust thresholds must be met.
WITHDRAWThe withdraw handler.Also - or wd
:POOLThe pool to withdraw liquidity from.Gas and stablecoin pools only.
:BASISPOINTSBasis points.Optional. Range 0-10000, where 10000 = 100%.


  • WITHDRAW:BTC/BTC:10000 — withdraw 100% from BTC Savers
  • -:ETH/ETH:5000 — withdraw 50% from ETH Savers
  • wd:BTC/BTC:1000 — withdraw 10% from BTC Savers


Withdrawing from Savers can be also be done without a memo.

Open Loan

Open a loan on THORChain.


PayloadThe collateral to open the loan with.Must be L1 supported by THORChain.
LOAN+The loan open handler.Also $+
:ASSETTarget debt asset identifier.Can be shortened.
:DESTADDRThe destination address to send the debt to.Can use THORName.
:MINOUTMinimum debt amount, else a refund. Similar to :LIM.Optional. 1e8 format.
:AFFILIATEThe affiliate address.Optional. Must be a THORName or THOR Address.
:FEEThe affiliate fee. RUNE is sent to affiliate.Optional. Ranges from 0 to 1000 Basis Points.


  • LOAN+:BSC.BUSD:0xe6a30f4f3bad978910e2cbb4d97581f5b5a0ade0 — open a loan with BUSD as the debt asset
  • $+:ETH.USDC-0XA0B86991C6218B36C1D19D4A2E9EB0CE3606EB48:0x1c7b17362c84287bd1184447e6dfeaf920c31bbe:10400000000 — open a loan where the debt is at least 104 USDT

Repay Loan

Repay a loan on THORChain.


PayloadThe repayment for the loan.Must be L1 supported on THORChain.
LOAN-The loan repayment handler.Also $-
:ASSETTarget collateral asset identifier.Can be shortened.
:DESTADDRThe destination address to send the collateral to.Can use a THORName.
:MINOUTMinimum collateral to receive, else a refund. Similar to :LIM.Optional. 1e8 format, loan needs to be fully repaid to close.


  • LOAN-:BTC.BTC:bc1qp2t4hl4jr6wjfzv28tsdyjysw7p5armf7px55w — repay BTC loan owned by owner bc1qp2t4hl4jr6wjfzv28tsdyjysw7p5armf7px55w
  • $-:ETH.ETH:0xe9973cb51ee04446a54ffca73446d33f133d2f49:404204059 — repay ETH loan owned by 0xe9973cb51ee04446a54ffca73446d33f133d2f49 and receive at least 4.04 ETH collateral back, else refund

Add Liquidity

Add liquidity to a pool.


There are rules for adding liquidity, see the rules here.

PayloadThe asset to add liquidity with.Must be supported by THORChain.
ADDThe add liquidity handler.Also a or +
:POOLThe pool to add liquidity to.Can be shortened.
:PAIREDADDRThe other address to link with. If on external chain, link to THOR address. If on THORChain, link to external address. If a paired address is found, the LP is matched and added. If none is found, the liquidity is put into pending.Optional. If not specified, a single-sided add-liquidity action is created.
:AFFILIATEThe affiliate address. The affiliate is added to the pool as an LP.Optional. Must be a THORName or THOR Address.
:FEEThe affiliate fee. RUNE is sent to affiliate.Optional. Ranges from 0 to 1000 Basis Points.


  • ADD:BTC.BTC — add liquidity single-sided. If this is a position's first add, liquidity can only be withdrawn to the same address
  • a:POOL:PAIREDADDR — add on both sides (dual-sided)
  • +:POOL:PAIREDADDR:AFFILIATE:FEE — add dual-sided with affiliate
  • +:ETH.ETH: — add liquidity with position pending

Withdraw Liquidity

Withdraw liquidity from a pool.


A withdrawal can be either dual-sided (withdrawn based on pool's price) or entirely single-sided (converted to one side and sent out).

PayloadSend the dust threshold of the asset to cause the transaction to be picked up by THORChain.Dust thresholds must be met.
WITHDRAWThe withdraw liquidity handler.Also - or wd
:POOLThe pool to withdraw liquidity from.Can be shortened.
:BASISPOINTSBasis points.Range 0-10000, where 10000 = 100%.
:ASSETSingle-sided withdraw to one side.Optional. Can be shortened. Must be either RUNE or the ASSET.


  • WITHDRAW:POOL:10000 — dual-sided 100% withdraw liquidity. If a single-address position, this withdraws single-sidedly instead
  • -:POOL:1000 — dual-sided 10% withdraw liquidity
  • wd:POOL:5000:ASSET — withdraw 50% liquidity as the asset specified while the rest stays in the pool, e.g., w:BTC.BTC:5000:BTC.BTC

Add Trade Account


Adds an L1 asset to the Trade Account.

PayloadThe asset to add to the Trade AccountMust be a L1 asset and supported by THORChain.
TRADE+The trade account handler.
ADDRMust be a thor addressSpecifies the owner

Example: TRADE+:thor1x2whgc2nt665y0kc44uywhynazvp0l8tp0vtu6 - Add the sent asset and amount to the Trade Account.

Withdraw Trade Account

Withdraws an L1 asset from the Trade Account.


PayloadThe Trade Asset to be withdrawn and amountUse MsgDeposit.
TRADE-The trade account handler.
ADDRL1 address to which the withdrawal will be sentCannot be a thor address

Note: Trade Asset and Amount are determined by the coins within the MsgDeposit. Transaction fee in RUNE does apply.


  • TRADE-:bc1qp8278yutn09r2wu3jrc8xg2a7hgdgwv2gvsdyw - Withdraw 0.1 BTC from the Trade Account and send to bc1qp8278yutn09r2wu3jrc8xg2a7hgdgwv2gvsdyw


Donate to a pool.


PayloadThe asset to donate to a THORChain pool.Must be supported by THORChain. Can be RUNE or ASSET.
DONATEThe donate handler.Also d
:POOLThe pool to withdraw liquidity from.Can be shortened.


  • DONATE:ETH.ETH — donate to the ETH pool


Donate to the THORChain Reserve.

PayloadTHOR.RUNEThe RUNE to credit to the THORChain Reserve.
RESERVEThe reserve handler.


Perform node maintenance features. Also see Pooled Nodes.


PayloadTHOR.RUNEThe asset to bond to a Node.
BONDThe bond handler.
:NODEADDRThe node to bond with.
:PROVIDERWhitelist in a provider.Optional. Add a provider.
:FEESpecify an Operator Fee in Basis Points.Optional. Default will be the mimir value (2000 Basis Points). Can be changed anytime.


PayloadNone required.Use MsgDeposit.
UNBONDThe unbond handler.
:NODEADDRThe node to unbond from.Must be in standby only.
:AMOUNTThe amount to unbond.In 1e8 format. If setting more than actual bond, then capped at bond.
:PROVIDERUnwhitelist a provider.Optional. Remove a provider.


PayloadNone required.Use MsgDeposit.
LEAVEThe leave handler.
:NODEADDRThe node to force to leave.If in Active, request a churn out to Standby for 1 churn cycle. If in Standby, forces a permanent leave.


  • BOND:thor19m4kqulyqvya339jfja84h6qp8tkjgxuxa4n4a
  • UNBOND:thor1x2whgc2nt665y0kc44uywhynazvp0l8tp0vtu6:750000000000
  • LEAVE:thor1hlhdm0ngr2j4lt8tt8wuvqxz6aus58j57nxnps


Internal memo type used to mark migration transactions between a retiring vault and a new Asgard vault during churn. Special THORChain triggered outbound tx without a related inbound tx.


PayloadAssets migrating.
MIGRATEThe migrate handler.
:BLOCKHEIGHTTHORChain block height to migrate.Must be a valid block height.



Dev-centric functions used to fix THORChain state.


May cause loss of funds if not performed correctly and at the right time.


PayloadThe asset to credit to a vault.Must be ASSET or RUNE.
NOOPThe no-op handler.Adds to the vault balance, but does not add to the pool.
:NOVAULTDo not credit the vault.Optional. Just fix the insolvency issue.


The following are the conditions for refunds:

Invalid MEMOIf the MEMO is incorrect the user will be refunded.
Invalid AssetsIf the asset for the transaction is incorrect (adding an asset into a wrong pool) the user will be refunded.
Invalid Transaction TypeIf the user is performing a multi-send vs a send for a particular transaction, they are refunded.
Exceeding Price LimitIf the final value achieved in a trade differs to expected, they are refunded.

Refunds cost fees to prevent DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. The user will pay the correct outbound fee for that chain. Refund memo is sent within a outbound transaction.

Other Internal Memos

  • consolidate — consolidate UTXO transactions
  • limito or lo — limit order functions (to be implemented)
  • name or n or ~ — THORName operations; see THORName Guide
  • out — for outbound transaction, set within a outbound transaction
  • ragnarok — used to delist pools, set within a outbound transaction
  • switchkillswitch operations (deprecated)
  • yggdrasil+ and yggdrasil- — Yggdrasil vault operations (deprecated; see ADR002)